Proto-oncogenes to Oncogenes to Cancer
Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes Bax P53 MYC Bcl-2 BRCA Trastuzumab Rband white makeup vanity with drawers ron a roll vernon ct memes de sexos con frases
Differentiate between the actions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the development of breast cancer. Describe the results of studies with antibodies and small molecule drugs that target growth factor receptors. Evaluate the current and potential roles of molecular and protein profiles of breast tumors in prognosis and in predicting response to therapy. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process characterized by genetic alterations that influence key cellular pathways involved in growth and development. Oncogenes refer to those genes whose alterations cause gain-of-function effects, while tumor suppressor genes cause loss-of-function effects that contribute to the malignant phenotype. The effects of these alterations are complex due to the high number of changes in a typical case of breast cancer and the interactions of the biological pathways involved. This review focuses on the more common abnormalities in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human breast cancer and their known associations with clinical outcome in terms of tumor classification, prognosis, and response to specific therapies.
NCBI Bookshelf. Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. Sunderland MA : Sinauer Associates; Cancer results from alterations in critical regulatory genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Studies of tumor viruses revealed that specific genes called oncogenes are capable of inducing cell transformation, thereby providing the first insights into the molecular basis of cancer. Therefore, in terms of our overall understanding of cancer, it has been critically important that studies of viral oncogenes also led to the identification of cellular oncogenes, which are involved in the development of non-virus-induced cancers.
Two of the main types of genes that play a role in cancer are oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Proto-oncogenes are genes that normally help cells grow. When a proto-oncogene mutates changes or there are too many copies of it, it becomes a "bad" gene that can become permanently turned on or activated when it is not supposed to be. When this happens, the cell grows out of control, which can lead to cancer. This bad gene is called an oncogene. It may be helpful to think of a cell as a car. For it to work properly, there need to be ways to control how fast it goes.
Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Cell Biology., An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. Most normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death apoptosis when critical functions are altered and malfunctioning.
Mutation in tumor suppressor gene leads to cancer