List of Strong and Weak Acids
Acids and Bases Chemistry - Basic Introductionand the how full
Though this makes it sound as if you'll have to learn about acids and bases three times, the good news is that for many practical purposes, these three definitions are roughly equivalent. Way back in the late s, our old friend Svante Arrhenius came up with definitions of acids and bases while working on kinetics problems. A common example of an Arrhenius acid is hydrochloric acid HCl :. The formulas for acids usually start with hydrogen, though organic acids are a notable exception. The names and formulas of some common acids are given in the table below:. Arrhenius bases are defined as compounds that cause the formation of the hydroxide ion when placed in water. One example of an Arrhenius base is sodium hydroxide NaOH :.
Perchloric acid. HClO 4. ClO 4 -. Perchlorate ion. Hydroiodic acid. Hydrobromic acid.
The name "acid" calls to mind vivid sensory images — of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as with the citric acid in lemons. On the other hand, the thought of laboratory-and industrial-strength substances with scary-sounding names, such as sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, carries with it other ideas — of acids that are capable of destroying materials, including human flesh. The name "base," by contrast, is not widely known in its chemical sense, and even when the older term of "alkali" is used, the sense-impressions produced by the word tend not to be as vivid as those generated by the thought of "acid. As with acids, they have many household uses, in substances such as baking soda or oven cleaners. From a taste standpoint, as anyone who has ever brushed his or her teeth with baking soda knows , bases are bitter rather than sour. How do we know when something is an acid or a base?
The List of Acids & Bases
Learning Objectives. Acid-Base Theories. Acids are characterized by a sharp sour taste, which we experience when we taste vinegar, which contains acetic acid.
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In water, by altering the autoionization equilibrium , bases yield solutions in which the hydrogen ion activity is lower than it is in pure water, i. However, it is important to realize that basicity is not the same as alkalinity. Metal oxides , hydroxides, and especially alkoxides are basic, and conjugate bases of weak acids are weak bases. Bases can be thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. However, some strong acids are able to act as bases. A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. In a neutralization reaction, an aqueous solution of a base reacts with an aqueous solution of an acid to produce a solution of water and salt in which the salt separates into its component ions.
Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. Common aqueous acids include hydrochloric acid a solution of hydrogen chloride which is found in gastric acid in the stomach and activates digestive enzymes , acetic acid vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of this liquid , sulfuric acid used in car batteries , and citric acid found in citrus fruits. As these examples show, acids in the colloquial sense can be solutions or pure substances, and can be derived from acids in the strict  sense that are solids, liquids, or gases. Strong acids and some concentrated weak acids are corrosive , but there are exceptions such as carboranes and boric acid.