Mitochondrial dynamics mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases

Mitochondrial dynamics--mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases.

mitochondrial dynamics mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases

Mitochondrial Dynamics and Diseases

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N Engl J Med. Dec 5;(23) doi: /NEJMra Mitochondrial dynamics--mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases.
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Although mitochondria are commonly depicted as singular oval-shaped structures, it has been known for at least a century that they form a highly dynamic network within most cells where they constantly undergo fission and fusion. Some of the proteins that are involved in mitochondrial fission have been identified and some of them are associated with mitochondrial diseases. The Drp1 protein is a member of the dynamin family of large GTPases. Drp1 controls the final part of mitochondrial fission, pinching off the membrane stalk between two forming daughter mitochondria. Points of ER-mitochondrial association have been associated with the formation of Drp1 complexes and mitochondrial fission.

Hsiuchen Chen, David C. Neurons are metabolically active cells with high energy demands at locations distant from the cell body. As a result, these cells are particularly dependent on mitochondrial function, as reflected by the observation that diseases of mitochondrial dysfunction often have a neurodegenerative component. Recent discoveries have highlighted that neurons are reliant particularly on the dynamic properties of mitochondria. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles by several criteria. They engage in repeated cycles of fusion and fission, which serve to intermix the lipids and contents of a population of mitochondria.

As the lifespan of humans increases, AD is becoming more prevalent disease. Mitochondria are essential organelles involved in oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production, metabolism of some neurotransmitters, amino acids and nucleotides, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species management and programmed cell death [ 5 7 ]. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are reshaped by opposing processes of fusion and fission. Mitochondrial fission is mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 Drp1 , a large GTPase, that is recruited to the outer mitochondrial membrane OMM from the cytosol by several mitochondrial outer membrane protein adaptors, including fission 1 Fis1 , mitochondrial fission factor Mff , as well as mitochondrial dynamics protein MiD of 49 and 51 [ 8 10 ]. Both structural and functional abnormalities of mitochondria in AD have been observed in models of AD and in patients [ 2 4 , 13 17 ]. These structural abnormalities are associated with an imbalance in proteins that control mitochondrial shape, size and number, increased Drp1 and Fis1 levels, and decrease in the levels of mitofusin 1 and 2 Mfn1, Mfn2 and optic atrophy 1 Opa1 [ 18 21 ]. The increase in mitochondrial fission proteins and decrease in mitochondrial fusion proteins likely results in increased mitochondrial structural damage seen in brains of AD patients; this, in turn, may contribute to disease progression as damaged mitochondria not only produce less ATP, but they also generate more damaging reactive oxygen species ROS that can propagate cytotoxicity of neighboring cells [ 1 , 24 ].



Mitochondrial fission

Mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Mitochondria are essential components of eukaryotic cells, carrying out critical physiological processes that include energy production and calcium buffering. Consequently, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a range of human diseases. Fundamental to their function is the ability to transition through fission and fusion states, which is regulated by several GTPases. Here, we have developed new methods for the non-subjective quantification of mitochondrial morphology in muscle and neuronal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. Mitochondria are essential components of eukaryotic cells, carrying out critical physiological processes that include energy production and calcium buffering. Consequently, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a range of human diseases. Fundamental to their function is the ability to transition through fission and fusion states, which is regulated by several GTPases. Here, we have developed new methods for the non-subjective quantification of mitochondrial morphology in muscle and neuronal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Posted in Clinical Review Article on 1st Apr Motor features such as resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability, can be attributed to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Together, these motor and non-motor features cause significant disability and drastically reduce quality of life in the afflicted patients. It has been estimated that up to 10 million people worldwide are affected by PD and approximately , people in the UK are living with this disease. PD also causes an enormous economic burden. To achieve this goal, it is critical to understand the aetiology and underlying mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in PD.

Skip to search form Skip to main content. Mitochondrial dynamics--mitochondrial fission and fusion in human diseases. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics underlie various human diseases, including cancer and neurologic and cardiovascular diseases. Defining the alterations may identify potential therapeutic targets. View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert.

Background: Bile acid-induced hepatocyte injury causes cholestatic liver disease. Results: Inhibiting mitochondrial fission prevents bile acid-induced hepatocyte death, and liver-specific decrease of mitochondrial fission in vivo limits bile duct ligation-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Conclusion: Controlling mitochondrial morphology is an effective strategy to decrease bile acid-induced liver injury. Significance: Mitochondrial fission is a new target to control cholestatic liver disease. Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease.

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