Rectum, Anus, and Anal Sphincter
Anus · Anal columns · Anal valves · Anal sinuses · Pectinate line; Internal anal sphincter; Intersphincteric groove · External anal.and
To evaluate anal sphincter anatomy using three-dimensional ultrasonography 3-DAUS in incontinent women with vaginal delivery, correlate anatomical findings with symptoms of fecal incontinence and determine the effect of vaginal delivery on anal canal anatomy and function. A control group comprising asymptomatic nulliparous was included. Of the 62, 49 had fecal incontinence and 13 were asymptomatic. Those with a vaginal delivery and intact sphincters had a shorter anterior EAS and longer gap than nulliparous. Key words: Fecal incontinence, ultrasonography; Anal canal, physiology; Natural childbirth. It has a significant impact on daily life and can lead to social isolation Different risk categories for fecal incontinence have been described
An anal sphincter is a group of muscles at the end of the rectum that surrounds the anus and controls the release of stool, thereby maintaining continence. There are two sphincter muscles: one is internal and one is external. The external muscle helps maintain continence and keep stool in the rectum. If there is a loss of muscle control in the sphincter, incontinence may occur. The inner muscle is not under voluntary control but rather is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. International Urogynecology Journal. The purpose of this study was to measure the internal and external anal sphincters using translabial ultrasound TLU at the proximal, mid, and distal levels of the anal sphincter complex. The human review committee approval was obtained and all women gave written informed consent. Sixty women presenting for gynecologic ultrasound for symptoms other than pelvic organ prolapse or urinary or anal incontinence underwent TLU. Anterior—posterior diameters of the internal anal sphincter at all levels and the external anal sphincter at the distal level were measured in four quadrants. Mean sphincter measurements are given for symptomatic and asymptomatic intact women and are comparable to previously reported endoanal MRI and ultrasound measurements.
The responses of the external anal sphincter and the internal anal sphincter to rectal distension were studied in 18 female patients who had idiopathic faecal incontinence with perineal descent and 11 female control subjects, by measuring pressures at six sites within the anal canal and the electrical activity of the external sphincter. The pressure profile in the normal anal canal, at rest, was asymmetric with the highest pressure recorded in the outermost channels. Rectal distension caused a transient increase in the activity of the external sphincter, which was associated with an increase in anal pressure, particularly in the outermost two channels. This was followed by a symmetrical reduction in anal pressure throughout the anal canal, caused by relaxation of the internal sphincter and shortening of the high-pressure zone. Two patterns of response were observed in the patients with idiopathic incontinence. Twelve patients group 1 showed normal anal relaxation, but the maximum anal pressures recorded during rectal distension or a conscious squeeze were abnormally low, suggesting weakness of the external anal sphincter. The remaining six subjects group 2 , who were older than the group 1 patients, had much lower resting pressures and showed only external sphincter contraction in response to rectal distension, with no obvious internal sphincter relaxation.
Physiology of defaecation
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External anal sphincter
It surrounds the anal canal. Composed of skeletal muscle and classically categorized into deep, superficial, and subcutaneous parts:. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Updating… Please wait. Unable to process the form.
The rectum is a muscular tube about 13 cm 5 in. The rectum connects the colon to the anus, which is the opening where stool exits the body. The internal and external anal sphincters are rings of muscle at the opening of the anus. The sphincters keep the anus closed as stool collects in the rectum. Eventually the pressure on the rectum wall causes the internal anal sphincter to relax.
The internal anal sphincter , IAS , or sphincter ani internus is a ring of smooth muscle that surrounds about 2. Its action is entirely involuntary , and it is in a state of continuous maximal contraction. It helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces. Sympathetic fibers from the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses stimulate and maintain internal anal sphincter contraction. Its contraction is inhibited by parasympathetic fiber stimulation. This sphincter is tonically contracted most of the time to prevent leakage of fluid or gas, but is relaxed upon distention of the rectal ampulla, requiring voluntary contraction of the puborectalis and external anal sphincter.